Although a relatively brief judgment addressing liability issues only, Griffiths v The Secretary of State for Health  EWHC 1264 (QB) provides an analysis of a claim against an ambulance service provider for failing to immobilise the claimant’s neck before moving him into a sitting position.
The ambulance officers assumed, mistakenly, that the claimant had suffered a stroke. It was not disputed that this assessment was negligent: . It remained to be determined whether the failure was responsible, at least in part, for his residual disability:
On that causation issue, the court had regard to a published study (which was of limited use), the factual evidence as to what was done on the day and the expert evidence.
The court concluded at  that there was evidence of manhandling (by the ambulance staff) and deterioration was sufficiently compelling to support the conclusion that the manhandling was responsible for the deterioration.