Writing for the Harvard Bill of Health blog, Alex Stein today reports:
In a recent decision, Volk v. DeMeerleer, 386 P.3d 254 (Wash. 2016), the Washington Supreme Court relaxed the “control” prerequisite for psychiatrists’ duty to protect third parties against violent patients.
The Court made this decision in a case involving a psychiatric patient who murdered his girlfriend and her nine-year old son and then committed suicide (after attempting to kill the girlfriend’s older son as well). For nine years leading up to that tragedy, the patient received outpatient care from the defendant psychiatrist, during which he expressed suicidal and homicidal ideations (without naming the potential victims).
The Court held that the psychiatrist had a “special relationship” with the victims because he was able to control the patient. Correspondingly, the psychiatrist had a duty to exercise “reasonable care to act consistent with the standards of the mental health profession, in order to protect the foreseeable victims of his or her patient.” The Court reasoned in this connection that some ability to control the patient’s conduct is sufficient for the “special relationship” and the consequent duty of care to exist. For that reason, psychiatrists should assume responsibility not only for an inpatient’s actions, but also in connection with an outpatient’s violence against third parties.
The Court explained that “Even bearing in mind the lesser amount of control available to mental health professionals in the outpatient setting, sufficient control nevertheless exists to recognize the duty. There are a number of preventative measures mental health professionals can undertake in the outpatient setting, even without actual custodial control …. in order to mitigate or prevent their patients’ foreseeable violent-actions. Given this reasoning, we find that absolute control is unnecessary, and the actions available to mental health professionals, even in the outpatient setting, weigh in favor of imposing a duty.”
The Court also mentioned that a psychiatrist’s obligation to protect third parties against patients’ violence will normally set aside her confidentiality obligation to the patient.